A single grain of a new mineral called goldschmidtite
Found in a diamond measuring 100 micrometers. Despite its modest size, the material contained in these spots is entirely new to science.
“Goldschmidtite has high concentrations of niobium, potassium and rare earth elements lanthanum and cerium. While the rest of the mantle is dominated by other elements such as magnesium and iron,” University of Alberta Ph.D. student Nicole Meyer was quoted as saying by Science Alert, Saturday (Saturday). 9/28/2019).
According to him, for potassium and niobium to be the main parts of these, they must be formed under a process that concentrates these unusual elements. A small sample, which is dark green, is thought to have formed at a depth of about 170 km below the surface, based on geothermobarometry analysis.
The mineral formula known as (K, REE, Sr) (Nb, Cr) O3, is chemically similar to a structured crystal of perovskite called potassium niobate (KNbO3). However, only the fifth natural mineral perovskite has been known to be seen in the Earth’s mantle.
Goldschmidtite samples were taken from the Koffiefontein kimberlite pipe in Kaapvaal Craton. Kaapvaal Craton itself is home to some of the oldest stones on the planet, including diamonds.
“As chemically inert and rigid hosts, diamonds can preserve minerals inside for billions of years. And, thus, provide an overview of ancient chemical conditions in cratonic jumps or inner mantle areas,” the paper said.